Who Are the Sad Young Men?
The Mutability of Meaning and Context in “The Ballad of the Sad Young Men”
by Mark Shilansky
As a jazz pianist who accompanies jazz vocalists, often in a duo setting, I am an avid listener to vocal/piano duo performances. One of my favorites is a performance that appears on vocalist Kurt Elling’s debut recording for Blue Note records, Close Your Eyes, released in 1995. On this recording, Kurt and pianist Laurence Hobgood duet on “The Ballad of the Sad Young Men,” by lyricist Fran Landesman and composer/pianist Tommy Wolf. While I have enjoyed Kurt and Laurence’s interplay on the song, and marveled at Kurt’s feats of breath control on the long phrases, I have often wondered, “Who are these sad young men Kurt is singing about?” and this paper became an opportunity for me to try and find out.
To learn the answers to this question, I listened to and researched many performances of the song, until certain historically significant ones began to emerge. I researched the lives the performers and the circumstances surrounding each recording of the song. I also compared and contrasted certain musical aspects of each performance. What I found was that, along with the song’s original context in the musical play for which it was written, the song had taken on other separate meanings as certain artists performed it. The versions on which I ultimately focused the most were ones that seemed to form a dialogue with one another of shared accrued meaning.
I knew the song’s composers, Fran Landesman and Tommy Wolf, as the composers of the jazz standard “Spring Can Really Hang You Up The Most,” which had been famously recorded by artists such as Stan Getz, Ella Fitzgerald, and Irene Kral. I assumed that they were another of the group of songwriters who composed the “Great American Songbook,” repertoire that had been the mainstay of most jazz singers, comprised of mostly musical theatre tunes composed between the 1930s and the 1960s. I saw that “Ballad of the Sad Young Men” had an abundance of lyrics, and that the song was done a disservice if all the lyrics weren’t performed, meaning that “Spring Can Really Hang You Up the Most” is either given an extremely long performance, to accommodate instrumental improvisation, or there is no improvisation at all, so that all the words will fit the accepted time constraints of one song. “Landesman and Wolf like to write songs with many lyrics,” I thought. Researching Fran Landesman’s life and the circumstances surrounding the composition of her most well known songs yielded much more compelling results.
“The Ballad of the Sad Young Men” was composed in 1958 for the musical The Nervous Set. The musical is based on a semi-autobiographical novel by Fran’s husband, Jay Landesman. Landesman founded a literary magazine in 1948 in New York called Neurotica, which published articles by some of the writers of the Beat movement, including Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac. Also during this period Jay Landesman met Frances Deitch, and they married in 1950. In 1952 Jay and Fran Landesman moved back to Jay’s hometown of St. Louis, Missouri, where Jay founded The Crystal Palace, a nightclub and performing arts space that became the center of St. Louis’s hotbed of creativity, Gaslight Square. The Crystal Palace hosted plays, comedians (such as Lenny Bruce and Woody Allen) and musical artists (such as a young Barbra Streisand) and was the venue for the 1959 debut of The Nervous Set. Fran Landesman had become a prolific poet by this time, and with house pianist of the Crystal Palace, Tommy Wolf, wrote the songs for “the first Beat musical” [i]
Scott Miller writes, “The Nervous Set, the jazz musical born in St. Louis’s legendary Gaslight Square entertainment district, described the Beat Generation, a generation of young people in post-World War II, pre-Vietnam America, swimming in disillusioned angst and apathy. It was funny, biting, outrageous, despairing, and brilliantly witty. But more than that, it was truthful, a serious social document, a record of a time and place that should never be forgotten, when America had lost its way and lost track of what’s important. It was a loving evocation of the Beat Generation, with all its warts and contradictions, all its nihilism and its earth-shattering realignment of modern literature and poetry.[ii]
In the musical, “Ballad of the Sad Young Men” is sung by the female lead Jan (a character based on Ms. Landesman, and, to some degree, Jay Landesman’s first wife Pat). The character Jan is supportive of her husband’s creative pursuits and the overall philosophy of the Beat movement, but finds aspects of the environment disconcerting. “[The character’s] song, “The Ballad of the Sad Young Men” captures not only her own view of the Beats, but also – because of her outsider status in the community – an objective analysis of the Beat culture. It becomes the central thesis of the show, the idea that the Beats were brilliant but destructive and unhealthy, that no genuine emotional attachments (like a marriage) can survive the nihilism. At the end of the song, she begs the moon to shine brightly enough to lead these sad young men home again. And her request is answered: Brad does finally come home again in the show’s heartbreaking final scene, but arguably he’s too late (depending on how you read the show’s final moments).” [iii] The play ends with the character Jan attempting (and perhaps surviving, but we never find out) suicide.
This would seem to be the end of my journey, as a casual assessment of “Ballad”’s appearance in the musical The Nervous Set puts the song in its proper context. But then I read this quote, from a review of a live performance by singer/pianist Roberta Flack:
“So what else did she offer? The Nervous Set lasted just three hours on Broadway, but, as Roberta pointed out, it did leave some fine songs and she performed the homosexual lament ‘The Ballad Of The Sad Young Men’ which, though mournful, was a highlight, followed immediately by a novel arrangement of ‘Ain't No Mountain’.”[iv]
This revelation threw me for a bit of a loop. “A homosexual lament?” That hardly seems to be the song’s intent in the play for which it was written. Roberta Flack is an R&B vocalist/pianist perhaps most well-known for her hits “The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face” and “Killing Me Softly” and other songs detailing the ups and downs of romantic love. However, her beginnings as a performer and journey to acquiring a record deal and international acclaim reveal the origin of this description of “Ballad.” Flack was a public school music teacher by day and a regular performer in Washington DC clubs by night. One such club had a strong Gay clientele. It was at this bar that record company executive Joel Dorn first heard her and decided to sign her to a record contract, partially based on the reactions of the audiences when she began to sing. Flack stated that the song had been introduced to her by one of her fans at this venue, and indicated that it described the concerns of a member of the Gay community. Eric Weisbard elaborates in his book Listen Again: A Momentary History of Pop Music:
“The lyric never openly refers to the term “gay” in the context of the homosexual concept, its references are unmistakable…the song’s last line confirms its sympathetic tone…‘guide them home again.’ ‘Ballad of the Sad young men’ was a staple in Flack’s live concerts. As early as 1971 she openly discussed its meaning in her stage act, lest its impressionistic lyrics be misunderstood. Flack sang songs of substance that had meaning for gay audiences throughout her career. “Jesse,” an ambiguously titled love song by Janis Ian, likely had resonance for Flack’s audiences. In 1982 Flack sang the theme song to “Making Love,” Arthur Penn’s groundbreaking and highly controversial film depicting homosexual love between two men. There is no way to fully emphasize the political risks Roberta Flack may have faced as an R&B singer in the late 60s, 70s and 80s performing and discussing songs advocating human rights for gay men and women.” [v]
So, in 1969 at least, Roberta Flack thought of the song this way. Further evidence for the resonance of this song as a descriptor of the gay experience is found in the rendition by cabaret singer Renato Russo in 1994, included in a recording memorializing the Stonewall riots in NY. [vi] In June 1969, police raided the Stonewall Inn, a noted gay bar, beating and imprisoning several patrons, which set off tremendous protests. The event is a red-letter date in the gay civil rights movement. Russo’s recording of the song on this album is a further indicator of its consideration in the gay community. The song is cited in a list of gay-themed music and movies in an essay by film critic Richard Dyer [vii] and in a collection of case studies of doctors, patients, and their family and friends who were significant in the AIDS epidemic. [viii]
It is in the version recorded by Mark Murphy, for his album “Bop for Kerouac” which encompasses a variety of meanings and contexts. Murphy had a long-standing fascination with the Beat writers, and would often recite poetry as part of his jazz performances and recordings, or set Beat poetry to music. It was this interest that yielded two explicit explorations of Kerouac and his contemporaries: the CDs Bop for Kerouac and Kerouac Then and Now. Murphy begins his version of “Ballad of the Sad Young Men” with a recitation of the final words from Jack Kerouac’s book On the Road, preceding a song for which Kerouac was one of the inspirations with actual prose Kerouac had written. [ix] Jay Landesman himself finds Mark Murphy’s evocation of the Beat period accurate in his paragraph from the liner notes to Bop for Kerouac: “Mark Murphy catches the musical nuances of the Beat Generation just right. ‘All the sad young men, knowing neon lights, missing all the stars…’ ‘Did they have any fun?’ Murphy’s selection of songs and Kerouac’s words are executed to perfection. His voice echoes the frustration mixed with eternal hope that so many of us suffered from in those days, and that drove so many of us crazy.” [x]
Some aspects of Mark Murphy’s life also shine a light on the meaning of this song for him. In the early 70s, Murphy was “outed” in an article about gay jazz musicians. Never confirming or denying the news (Murphy never officially acknowledged his sexual orientation publicly), he spent years living in Berlin, and then in the late 70s re-located to San Francisco. His long-term partner, Allan, died of AIDS in 1981. At this point in the history of the disease, however, there was very little known about it, and the reticence of some political figures to advocate the allocation of money to study it (well-documented in Simon Watley’s Imagine Hope: AIDS and Gay Identity) [xi] meant that thousands of gay men were dying of what felt like a plague, with no cure in sight. For Murphy, singing songs like Billy Strayhorn’s deathbed composition “Blood Count” (on Kerouac Then and Now) were a way of memorializing the dead (including his partner). In fact, Murphy never performed “Blood Count” live after recording it. He also spoke of “Ballad of the Sad Young Men” as an expression of the concerns of many in San Francisco at the time. Instead of describing the concerns of the Beats, the aftermath of WWII, the struggle against fascism and for freedom of lifestyle that gave way to the 60’s and the Summer of Love, the song now gives voice to the uncertainty of life as a gay man, but also as one who might at any time fall victim to this plague. His performance of the song has a connection to the Beat Poets, but also a connection to the gay community. [xii]
Murphy’s version led me to singer Anita O’Day’s 1961 recording of the song. She knew some of the Beat writers. Kerouac himself writes of a gig of Anita’s in On the Road: “We rushed after the whole gang. They went into Anita O’Day’s club and there unpacked and played ‘til nine o’clock in the morning.” [xiii] Also like many jazz musicians, Anita O’Day had a heroin habit for 14 years. In the movie Anita O' Day: The Life of a Jazz Singer, author Amy Albany was interviewed at length. Amy’s father Joe Albany was a noted bebop pianist also noted for his heroin addiction. Says Amy, “With jazz you have to live it to perform it… it’s ingrained in every fiber, every breathing moment.”[xiv] For musicians like Anita O’Day, living the jazz life meant long nights playing, many days on the road, and close proximity to hard drugs. Sometimes musicians were persecuted for behavior in which they themselves didn’t engage, but police would follow jazz musicians with the hope of scoring a drug arrest. Says O’Day, “I went to jail for pot, and I hadn’t done it, and I said ‘well, if I got the name I better play the game. People (and police) assumed one was doing drugs if one was a jazz musician, so one might as well do the drugs if one is going to be accused of it (and go to jail for it).‘” [xv]
This historical approach seemed to indicate connections of meaning between the song’s original appearance to Mark Murphy’s, and also from its original appearance through O’Day’s version to Roberta Flack’s, but what evidence of this could be found in an actual musical analysis of the performances? I transcribed and compared several elements of each performance. Richie Cole’s alto saxophone filling throughout the Mark Murphy version could be said to be an evocation of the influence of bebop musicians like saxophonist Charlie Parker in the lives of the Beat poets, as exemplified here in an excerpt of Kerouac’s poetry:
The History of Bop
Bop began with jazz
but one afternoon somewhere on a sidewalk maybe 1939, 1940 Dizzy Gillespie or Charlie Parker or Thelonious Monk was walking down past a men’s clothing store on 42nd street or south main in L.A. when from a loudspeaker they heard a wild and possible mistake in jazz that could have only been heard inside their own imaginary head
and that is a new art.
However, there is little in the way of musical detail that provides evidence for the hypothesis I stated in the introduction, no melodic alteration that is the “heroin lick” or reharmonization that is the “homosexual chord,” but what is gained through analysis of a variety of versions of the song is insight into each artist’s style. For instance, Roberta Flack tends to “back-phrase” the song, starting each melodic phrase not on the downbeat but 2-3 beats later. Also, Flack is given to repeating certain words for emphasis, “best she can” and “at making love.” Mark Murphy often will extend a phrase over a bar line, taking a breath for his next phrase after the next sentence has begun, giving the line a sense of forward motion and carrying the listener to the next idea. Both Murphy’s and Kurt Elling’s versions utilize reharmonization to highlight certain words. In the Murphy version, triads of relative stasis alternate with triads of more dissonance, over a dominant pedal in the bass. In the Elling version, the phrase “sad young men are growing old” is reharmonized with parallel structures ending on a particularly rich Abm11 chord on the world “old.” All these observations about the musical content have not brought us much closer to definitive proof of the association of drug addiction or homosexuality to this song. They do illustrate the value of listening to and comparing multiple artists’ performances. The song itself is the constant, the control group of the experiment as it were, and the differences in the performances can be heard as aspects that make each artist unique, such as Flack’s back-phrasing and Murphy’s over-the-bar line phrasing.
So, let us return to the historical/biographical associations. Are these connections enough for us to link the song with them, to say that the song is about drug addiction or homosexuality? Harvard University Ethnomusicology Professor Ingrid Monson offers these thoughts, which summarize my conclusions about the relationship of these extra-musical aspects to various performances of “Ballad.”
"The reference may be as specific as a melodic quotation from a particular piece or as diffuse as a timbre or style of groove. It might be from within or without mainstream jazz repertory. The important point is that a chain of associations may be set off that engage the listener and unite her or him with a community of other individuals who share a similar musical point of view. Quotations are only the most obvious examples of the thick web of intertextual and intermusical associations to which knowledgeable performers and listeners react. Theoretically almost any musical detail or composite thereof could convey a reference, so long as a community of interpreters can recognize the continuity. The key here is "community of interpreters" (which includes both performers and audience), for a sonic detail becomes socially meaningful and actionable only in an at least partially shared context of use… ...An aural passage conveys to those with the sociocultural knowledge to recognize and interpret it a relation between a past performance and a present one."[xvii]
In other words, a “community of interpreters” (chief among them O’Day, Flack, Murphy) have imbued their performances of this song with their own subtext, be it drug abuse, the tribulations of the Gay lifestyle and the specter of AIDS, or the tumult of the Beat Generation. If the audience for these artists were aware of this subtext, then they would hear that meaning in the performance. Thus, the song takes on meaning that may not have been intended by the composers. We have seen this phenomenon with other pieces of music in popular culture. One notable example is director Martin Scorcese’s use of the ending of Eric Clapton and Jim Gordon’s “Layla” over a montage of victims of mafia killings in the movie “Goodfellas.” That song is inextricably linked to that movie scene, if one has seen it. Another is the use of Queen’s “Bohemian Rhapsody” in the Mike Myers film “Wayne’s World,” which led to a resurgence in the popularity of that song. [xviii] And there are many examples of the musical tracks of songs being used as background for Hip Hop Spoken Word performances, such as the appropriation of Michael McDonald’s “I Keep Forgettin’” by rap artist Warren G for his song “Regulate.”[xix] Perhaps the most circuitous road to recontextualization and meaning was traveled by Leonard Cohen’s “Hallelujah,” which had its origin on a flop album, was reworked by John Cale of The Velvet Underground in a truncated version, which was then heard by singer/songwriter Jeff Buckley, whose cover version became ubiquitous as an indicator of pathos in a TV or movie scene after Buckley died tragically, which led to the song being one of the most covered of all time.[xx]
Why is all of this important? Observing the web of meaning and context that “Ballad of the Sad Young Men” has taken on through its various performances shows us that there is often more than first meets the eye (and ear) when we experience a piece of music, and that a fuller appreciation of the work can be reached by tracing not only the original occurrence and intentions of the piece, but also the circumstances surrounding other performances of the piece, and the historical backgrounds of their performers. It is only in this way that we might truly discover “Who are the Sad Young Men.”
Brennan, Patrick S. "Underground Homosexualities: Resituating the Early Sixties
Cinema of Kenneth Anger, Jack Smith, and Andy Warhol." University of Florida, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing (2002): 1-156. ProQuest. Web. 18 Nov. 2016.
Cook, Nicholas, "Video Cultures: Bohemian Rhapsody, Wayne's World,
And Beyond." Collected Work: Representation in Western music. Published by: Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2013. ISBN: 1-107-02157-X; 978-1-107-02157-0.; Published by: New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2013. ISBN: 978-1-107-02157-0; 1-107-02157-X. Pages: 79-99. (AN: 2013-04145). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, n.d. RILM Abstracts of Music Literature. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.
This article is a model for my paper. It traces the history of the creation of “Bohemian Rhapsody,” including the promotional video accompanying the song. When the song is included in the “Wayne’s World” movie, its popularity and the popularity of the band experience a revival, including appearances in commercials and a performance by “The Muppets,” wherein an understanding of those new appearances is dependent upon one’s viewing of A) the song’s video and B) the new “Wayne’s World” placement. In order to fully “get” the use of the song, one must be familiar with not just the song, but also its new contexts.
Connolly, Mike (Director), “Killing Me Softly: The Roberta Flack
Story (2014)”, Alleycats TV
Devoe, David, Phone Interview with Author, 20 Nov, 2016
Elling, Kurt – Close Your Eyes, Blue Note Records, 1995, CD
Elling, Kurt, “Kurt Elling Remembers Mark Murphy,” JazzTimes Magazine,
March 13, 2016
Elling eulogizes Murphy in this article and discusses his love for Murphy’s sound and delivery, and their shared love for poetry and its use in jazz.
Flack, Roberta, First Take. Roberta Flack. Atlantic, 1969,
Kerouac, Jack. On the road. New York: Viking, 1997.
Kerouac, Jack, writer. Readings by Jack Kerouac on the beat
generation. Recorded 1960. Verve, 1997, CD.
Landesman, Jay. Rebel without Applause. 1st ed. Sag Harbor, NY:
Permanent, 1987. Kindle.
An autobiography of Jay Landesman, husband of lyricist Fran Landesman. Jay is the librettist of “The Nervous Set,” and this memoir details the artistic and personal climate during the creation of this show and “The Ballad of the Sad Young Men,” in particular their relationship to Jack Kerouac.
Light, Allan, The Holy and the Broken: Leonard Cohen, Jeff Buckley, and
the Unlikely Ascent of “Hallelujah,” , New York, Atria Books, 2012
This book tells the story of Leonard Cohen’s “Hallelujah,” and its journey from a long gestation period to being a mostly-forgotten deep cut on the “Various Positions” album, to its discovery and popularization by singer Jeff Buckley (and the amazing coincidences and tragedies that catapulted that song to the ubiquity it enjoys today). The history of this song is a perfect encapsulation of how a song can become popular long after its composition and release, and how its context can change due to unrelated events.
Lynch, Kevin, “Jazz Singer Mark Murphy (1932-2015), "The Next Sinatra,"
Did It His Way”, No Depression Magazine, Dec 2, 2015
Euolgy for Murphy briefly discussing “Ballad” and Murphy’s penchant for use of poetry in jazz. Also discusses Murphy’s sexual orientation and how it affected his life.
Martin, Douglas. "Fran Landesman, 83, Lyricist With a Bittersweet
Edge." New York Times 1 Aug. 2011: A19(L). The New York Times. Web. 26 Sept. 2016.
This is an obituary of the lyricist of “Ballad of the Sad Young Men,” and the musical “The Nervous Set,” for which the song was originally written. Landesman lived a fascinating and sometimes scandalous life, featuring an “open” relationship with her husband of over 40 years, Jay, where they often “swung” and brought other lovers home for the evening, and had breakfast with them (and the Landesman’s children) the next morning. They also were ardent supporters of (and participants in) the Beat Poetry movement and avant garde theatre and music in New York and in their “true” home, St. Louis, where they started a theatre that was a hotbed of creativity for left-of-center artists. This article gave me a sense of who this woman was and a gateway into her possible intentions for “Ballad of the Sad Young Men.”
Miller, Scott. "Inside THE NERVOUS SET by Scott Miller."
Inside THE NERVOUS SET by Scott Miller. 2003. Accessed November 18, 2016. http://www.newlinetheatre.com/nervoussetchapter.html.
Monson, Ingrid. Doubleness and jazz improvisation: irony,
parody, and ethnomusicology. 2nd ed. Vol. 20. Critical Inquiry. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1994. July 23, 2007. Accessed November 18, 2016.
Murphy, Mark, Bop for Kerouac, New York, N.Y. : Muse Records,
Murphy, Mark, Kerouac: Then and Now, New York, NY: Muse Records,
O’Day, Anita, Anita O'Day: LIfe of a Jazz Singer. Directed by
Robbie Cavolina and Ian McCrudden. Performed by Anita O'Day, Amy Albany, Buddy Bregman. 2007. Online Movie. February 2014. Accessed November 18, 2016.
O’Day, Anita, All the Sad Young Men, Verve Records, 1962, CD
Partridge, Kenneth. "'Regulate' At 20: Warren G & Michael
McDonald Discuss the G-Funk Jam." Billboard. N.p., 28 Apr. 2014. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.
Interview with rapper Warren G and Singer/Songwriter Michael McDonald about the circumstances leading up to and the creation of “Regulate,” a collaboration where G and vocalist Nate Dogg create a new song over the backing track of McDonald’s “I Keep Forgettin’.” They detail the creative process and note how the song has earned them recognition in each others’ genres over the years.
Peisner, David. "The Oral History of the 'Wayne's World'
'Bohemian Rhapsody' Scene." Rolling Stone. N.p., 30 Nov. 2015. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.
An interview with members of the band Queen and the creative team behind the “Wayne’s World” movie, about how the Queen classic “Bohemian Rhapsody,” came to be used in a pivotal scene in the movie, and how this appearance led to a renewed interest in the band’s music.
Russo, Renato – “The Stonewall Celebration Concert”, EMI, 2004
Shapiro, Gregazette. "Roberta Flack Takes on the Beatles'
Canon - Wisconsin Gazette." Wisconsin Gazette. p., 23 Feb. 2012. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.
St. Pierre, Roger, “Roberta Flack: Royal Albert Hall, London”,
New Musical Express, 1973. Web. 20 Nov. 2016 http://www.rocksbackpages.com/Library/Article/roberta-flack-royal-albert-hall-london
Watney, Simon. Imagine Hope: AIDS and Gay Identity. London: Routledge, 2000. Web.
18 Nov. 2016.
Weisbard, Eric. Listen Again: A Momentary History of Pop Music. Durham:
Duke UP, 2007. Print.
Essays about influential songs, artists, and albums. Significant analysis of Roberta Flack’s “First Take,” with “Ballad of the Sad Young Men,” having a Gay subtext.
[i] Miller, Scott. "Inside THE NERVOUS SET”; website
[iv] St. Pierre, Roger, “Roberta Flack: Royal Albert Hall, London”,
New Musical Express, 1973. Web
[v] Weisbard, Eric. Listen Again: A Momentary History of Pop Music. Durham:
Duke UP, 2007
[vi] Russo, Renato – “The Stonewall Celebration Concert”, EMI, 2004
[vii] Brennan, Patrick S. "Underground Homosexualities: Resituating the Early Sixties
Cinema of Kenneth Anger, Jack Smith, and Andy Warhol." University of Florida, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing (2002): 1-156. ProQuest. Web
[viii] Watney, Simon. Imagine Hope: AIDS and Gay Identity. London: Routledge, 2000. Web.
[ix] Murphy, Mark, Bop for Kerouac, New York, N.Y. : Muse Records,
[xi] Watney, Simon. Imagine Hope: AIDS and Gay Identity
[xii] Devoe, David, Phone Interview with Author, 20 Nov, 2016
[xiii] Kerouac, Jack. On the road. New York: Viking, 1997.
[xiv] O’Day, Anita, Anita O'Day: LIfe of a Jazz Singer. Directed by
Robbie Cavolina and Ian McCrudden. Performed by Anita O'Day, Amy Albany, Buddy Bregman. 2007
[xvi] Kerouac, Jack,. Readings by Jack Kerouac on the beat
generation. Recorded 1960. Verve, 1997
[xvii] Monson, Ingrid. Doubleness and jazz improvisation: irony,
parody, and ethnomusicology. 2nd ed. Vol. 20. Critical Inquiry. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1994
[xviii] Cook, Nicholas, "Video Cultures: Bohemian Rhapsody, Wayne's World,
[xix] Partridge, Kenneth. "'Regulate' At 20: Warren G & Michael
McDonald Discuss the G-Funk Jam." Billboard. N.p., 28 Apr. 2014
[xx] Light, Allan, The Holy and the Broken: Leonard Cohen, Jeff Buckley, and
the Unlikely Ascent of “Hallelujah,” , New York, Atria Books, 2012